معرفیکتاب: سلاست در سه ماه / فصل 1
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متن انگلیسی فصل
I would like, first and foremost, to thank all the many thousands of people who have showed me, over the span of a decade, how to have more faith in all people, from all countries, to appreciate communication, and to not worry about a few mistakes. I have almost never been judged as a beginning language learner, and it’s thanks to these wonderful people of countless nationalities that I have been able to discover so many different cultures and make lifelong friends. Their patience has been infinite, and I am glad to say that they will be as kind to any reader of this book—any new language learner—as they were with me.
Also, a huge thank-you to Jorge, the first polyglot I met in my life, who is from Brazil and whose name I couldn’t even pronounce when I met him. He inspired me to get started (bumpy as the start was) on this wonderful road to language learning.
While writing the book, the biggest help by far was my “polyNot” friend Anthony Lauder, who read through the entire first unedited draft and sent me feedback longer than the longest chapter of the book, which helped me realize the many ways I could improve my arguments. He also helped me appreciate the perspective of a newbie, who may find certain aspects of language learning difficult, though he himself has great skills and thoughts about language learning and has inspired many others to give it a try too.
Lauren Cutlip, M.A. in rhetoric, also helped me vastly improve arguments from the perspective of someone completely new to language learning, as well as present certain thoughts more clearly while maintaining my voice.
John Fotheringham from languagemastery.com helped me improve the Japanese section, since I was learning that language while in the editing stages of the book and needed someone with experience to present the language in an encouraging light. At press time, I’ve added Japanese to my list of languages.
Next is the group I lovingly call Team Linguist, all of whom have master’s or Ph.D. degrees in various fields of linguistics. I sent them parts of the book to get their professional or academic opinions on the scientific validity of what I was saying. Their feedback was essential during fact-checking and ensured the book had a solid foundation beyond my experiences and anecdotes. Team Linguist included Agnieszka Mizuu Gorońska (M.A. in ethnolinguistics), Rachel Selby (M.A. in TESOL/language acquisition), Sarah McMonagle (Ph.D. in language policy and planning), Seonaid Beckwith (M.A. in psycholinguistics of second-language acquisition), and Judith Meyer (M.A. in computational linguistics; also a polyglot with her own site: Learnlangs.com).
My Story, Your Passion
Your story, like mine, begins and ends with passion—the surest path to learning a new language.
In late July 2003, just a couple of weeks after my twenty-first birthday, I moved to Valencia, Spain. To help me adjust to life in a foreign country, I enrolled in a Spanish class.
It was a small class, and it was taught entirely in Spanish, which was a bit of a problem for me because I only understood English. I had just graduated with a degree in electronic engineering, and I had barely passed the German and Irish courses I took in high school. Languages were definitely not my thing.
After several classes, I was getting absolutely nowhere. Each lesson ended with the other students wearing great big satisfied smiles on their faces. I knew they had figured out something about the language that they didn’t know before, while I still couldn’t understand a single word. My ego was destroyed. I was, without a doubt, the worst student in the class, and as I walked home with my head hung low, I couldn’t help thinking, It’s not fair! Why were those guys blessed with the language learning gene and I wasn’t? I’m never going to learn Spanish.
After six months in Spain, I could barely muster up the courage to ask how much something cost or where the bathroom was. I really started to think I would never learn Spanish. I began to worry my experience immersed in a different country would be a total failure. I was convinced my destiny was to spend the rest of my life speaking only English.
Fast-forward seven years. One night in Budapest, I ended up at a “couchsurfing” party at a local bar with an international crowd. I confidently strolled in and said hello to everyone in Hungarian, one of the most notoriously difficult languages in the world. I started chatting with a local, in Hungarian, about my progress with his native language. I had been learning it only for about five weeks, but I was still able to have this rudimentary chat with him.
Next, I noticed a slight Brazilian Portuguese accent from the guy speaking English to my left. I asked, “Você é brasileiro?” (Are you Brazilian?), and when he told me, in Portuguese, that he was from Rio, I immediately switched to my Carioca accent, using slang from his own city, telling him how much I missed it. He was shocked to hear an Irish guy speak his own Portuguese dialect in a random bar in Budapest!
Then I recognized a Spanish friend of mine across the table and immediately switched to fluent Spanish, asking her how her Hungarian was coming along. Later, a couple from Quebec arrived, and I turned on my Quebec accent and expressions while speaking French. We exchanged contact information and made plans to hang out the next day.
That night I also managed to use some Italian and Esperanto and wowed a Thai tourist with a few phrases of basic Thai, using all the right tones. I even flirted in German with a German girl I saw regularly at these meetings.
In one evening I spoke eight languages (including a little English) casually, socially, and naturally. I switched between them effortlessly, without mixing them up, and—more important—made some amazing new friends in the process.
Since then I’ve learned several other languages, and at the time of writing this, I can confidently use twelve languages in varying degrees of proficiency, from conversational (in Dutch, Mandarin Chinese, and American Sign Language) to certified mastery (in Spanish) and everything in between for the other nine. I understand the basics of another twelve languages on top of these. I also run Fluentin3months.com, the world’s largest language learning blog, which, to date, has helped millions of people around the world learn a new language.
All of this is true despite the fact that I spoke only English until the age of twenty-one and did poorly in my attempts to learn languages in school.
How did this happen? How did I go from dropping out of my Spanish language class to being able to converse in more than a dozen languages? Simply by changing how I approach new languages.
The Way to Learn a Language Is to Live It
One of the biggest issues with a traditional approach to language learning is that the benefits to picking up a new language are constantly postponed. Study this and study that and then, if you’re lucky, in a few years’ time, you’ll eventually understand the language. As well as being far from the truth, this approach removes the fun and the life from the process.
In many education systems, especially in English-speaking countries, languages are taught the same way as any other subject, like geography or history. Teachers provide the “facts” (vocabulary) so the student will “know” the language. Or, as in mathematics, students do the exercises to understand the “rules” (grammar).
Except on rare occasions, this approach does not produce speakers of the target language, so something clearly needs to be fixed. A language is a means of communication and should be lived rather than taught.
A teacher’s primary role should be as a language facilitator. A teacher should make sure students use the target language at whatever level they happen to be at, rather than keep them quiet while he or she does all the talking, trying to transfer the informational components of the language into the students’ brains.
In high school, I had to learn Irish. It was mandatory and, in order to gain admission to university, I needed to pass my exams. As a result, I only cared about learning enough Irish to pass; I didn’t care about the language itself.
My attitude toward Irish changed completely when I actually took the time to live in the Gaeltacht region of Ireland, where people still speak the language, and I started to make friends using it.
The second language I took in high school was German. I took German because Germany is an important economy in Europe, and I figured it would look good to have this language on my résumé. German language skills would help me stand out, especially since most people in my year were studying French. Once again, I didn’t care about the German language; I just thought learning it might give me secondary benefits. And, of course, I barely retained anything. I thought German was nothing more than der, die, das tables of impossible-to-learn grammar. And I imagined Germans were robots that automatically spit out grammatically correct sentences.
That is, until I met actual Germans and saw firsthand how interesting and fun they were. So fun, in fact, I wanted to get to know them better. This way of thinking allowed me to stop thinking of the German language as a barrier between Germans and me, but instead as a bridge I could cross to communicate with them. In both cases, my initial tangential motivations for learning a language were replaced by a direct motivation to live that language and use it as a means of communication and connection.
This is how language courses should work. The best tend to veer away from the traditional approach of drilling grammar and word lists into us, or providing us with old, boring, and irrelevant texts. Instead, the best courses encourage us to play games and role-play in the language. They let students speak the language with one another, which—as I realized with both of the languages I had learned poorly in high school and then much better as an adult—is the truest means of communication. As a result of speaking the language right away, students start to acquire the language rather than learn it as they would other academic subjects.
What’s Your Motivation?
Let me ask you something: When you first tried to take on a language you were interested in, did you think something like, If I learn this language then I’ll get this benefit—some benefit that had nothing to do with intrinsically communicating in that language or getting to know a foreign country’s culture or people?
“Benefits,” like career advancement, impressing people, prestige, passing an exam, crossing something off your bucket list, or other similar reasons, are examples of tangential motivations that have nothing to do with using the language itself.
For so many language learners, that motivation to learn a language is more often than not extrinsic rather than intrinsic. They have no true passion for the language; their only motivation is almost entirely for the side benefits they’d theoretically get from speaking a new language. Recognizing the bridges to people that language learning opens up as opposed to benefits you may receive someday, is a key ingredient to making language learning faster, more fun, and more efficient.
The Missing Ingredient: Passion
In this book, I focus on independent learners, rather than those sitting in classrooms. Even if you are taking a classroom course, whether it is taught efficiently or not, you need to be an efficient learner in your free time. When you love learning a language enough to have it fill your free time, then your passion can truly blossom. You can find many new motivations beyond extrinsic ones.
This is not to say that these factors automatically lead to failure; success in your career, for instance, can be a very effective motivating factor. The catch, however, is that these side benefits can’t be the main motivators for you to learn a language if you want to learn the language better. You must intrinsically want to speak that language for the language or culture itself.
When I eventually rebooted my attempts to learn Spanish, I put aside these superficial reasons—that someday Spanish might make me impressive or perhaps even more employable. Instead, I started to learn Spanish specifically to use Spanish with other human beings. This made all the difference. I genuinely wanted to communicate in Spanish and make friends through their native tongue. I also wanted to get to know Spain beyond the superficial experience I had had until then.
I was no longer motivated by benefits I might get months or years in the future, or by the idea that speaking Spanish would “make me cool”; I was genuinely passionate about learning the language in order to communicate directly with and understand other people through reading, watching, and listening to Spanish.
So take a moment to ask yourself, what is your motivation for learning a new language? Are you learning a language for the “wrong” reasons? Even if you indeed need the benefits that result from learning a language, like advancing your career, can you mentally put aside the long-term benefits and embrace learning the language for the inherent beauty of it and the many doors it will open for you? If you change your thinking in this way, all the side benefits will come, but they will come much faster, because your new focus will make learning a language happen more quickly and efficiently.
The missing ingredient, and the single thing I have found that separates successful language learners from unsuccessful ones, is a passion for the language itself. For successful language learners, acquiring a new language is the reward.
Give Yourself Goose Bumps
So how do you develop this passion if extrinsic benefits have been clouding your vision?
For a start, seek out movies and art and history from the country where your target language is spoken, listen to music in that language, read books and magazines, find as many sources of audio, video, and text online as you can, and absolutely spend time with native speakers—which you’ll notice I’ve dedicated an entire chapter to, without requiring that you travel to their countries.
Even when I know I am going to a country and have my flight booked, or even when I’m in the country itself, I can get lazy and make very slow progress unless I make that language a true part of my life. Doing so lets me grow passionate for the language.
Here’s a good time to tell you about my friend Khatzumoto. After speaking and reading Japanese exclusively for just eighteen months, he could read technical materials and conduct business correspondence and job interviews, all in Japanese. He ultimately landed a job in Japan as a software engineer at a gigantic corporation based in Tokyo.
The amazing thing is that Khatzumoto reached this stage by living his life in Japanese . . . while in Utah! He filled his world with Japanese virtually. He watched anime, read manga, consumed his favorite sci-fi series dubbed in Japanese, and surrounded himself with everything Japanese during every spare moment of his day, even though he was a full-time computer science student. By integrating his target language into his day-to-day living, he gave himself no escape route; he had no choice but to live most of his days in Japanese. As a result, his passion for the language grew. Today, his motto for learning Japanese, or for learning any language, remains “You don’t know a language, you live it. You don’t learn a language, you get used to it.” Nothing creates passion for a language more than using it. Similarly, nothing I say about why you should learn a new language will be more convincing than the first time you understand your first sentence, or the first time you make yourself understood, in a different language. These moments will give you goose bumps, and the immense feeling of satisfaction that comes with them will stay with you forever, as well as thousands of other positive experiences that will follow.
The passion ingredient is what makes learning languages worthwhile; you simply have to live that language in whatever way you can to have your passion sparked. Spend time with natives of the language, listen to streamed radio, watch TV shows and movies, or read books in the language, and you will spark your passion, which will motivate much more progress than any side benefit could ever hope to inspire.
How Far Are You Willing to Go?
Moses McCormick is a well-known polyglot who often posts online videos in languages that he’s learning. He can communicate, in varying degrees—from knowing a few phrases to being able to converse very well—in about fifty languages. When he was trying to improve his Hmong, an Asian language rarely known to Westerners, he told me the one place where he could consistently practice with native speakers was in online chat rooms. That’s all well and good, but one major obstacle, he said, was that most chat rooms were often filled with men interested only in meeting girls. They weren’t interested in continuing a conversation with another guy.
So what did Moses do? He created another screen name and logged in as a woman (a virtual sex change operation, if you will, only taking just an instant and totally reversible). Even when he said he was married, he still found that people were much more eager to chat.
Would you go to such lengths to get some practice time in your target language? If not, then maybe you aren’t passionate enough to get the results!
I’m obviously not saying that logging into a chat room as another gender is a prerequisite for speaking another language, but going to such lengths and being willing to do whatever it takes, no matter what the level of embarrassment, will greatly improve your chances of being successful.
The Right Mentality Will Launch You Forward
Success in language learning doesn’t come from having the perfect circumstances or require a perfect language learning system. Success relies heavily on facing challenges with the right mentality, having motivation and passion, and sticking to the learning process until you charge through the “brick wall” in your way.
Someone with mountains of passion will always find a way to progress in his or her target language, even if that person uses inefficient learning approaches or gets stuck on plateaus for long periods of time. There are successful language learners who learn very differently from me—sometimes slower, sometimes faster, sometimes with better language skills or more languages under their belts. Without fail, however, the one thing we always have in common is passion.
In fact, every language learning challenge I have ever taken on has had its disappointing failures. I’ve had moments when I felt like giving up, when I saw others doing much better than I was, and when I had trouble finding people to practice with. I’ve struggled with conversations that went nowhere, had some rough starts, hit plateaus, forgotten words I should have known, and experienced countless other obstacles that made me feel like a failure, all of which led to many hours of frustration. But I kept going because I wanted to keep going. I had a passion for language, and that’s how I’ve been able to learn to speak twelve languages and counting.
Once you learn one new language, you’re off and running. Learning the first foreign language gives you the skills to learn a second, and then a third, faster and more efficiently.
In the following pages, I’ll show you how to master a new language, with the lessons I’ve learned and the techniques I’ve applied while transitioning from a monoglot to a polyglot, plus give you solutions to—or ways around—difficult problems. Believe me, none of it involves re-engineering your DNA to add in the language gene. Instead, this collection of lessons can be used by any language learner, at any stage or any age, and it includes the same lessons millions of people have already been using on my blog: Fluentin3months.com.
“A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.”
The first step in language learning is to make the commitment to do whatever it takes to make your project a success. If you have the passion to do what it takes, no matter what that may require, then this will ensure that you will, soon, be able to speak your target language.
For more on my story and other thoughts on the importance of passion in language learning, check out fi3m.com/intro, where there are videos, links to sites of people mentioned in this chapter, and extra updates designed specifically for readers of this introduction.
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