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متن انگلیسی فصل
Special effects are used when it is too difficult, too dangerous, or too expensive to do something in the usual way. They are used to make the audience think that they are seeing something which they really are not.
For example, small models of towns or buildings are very useful. In films, when you see a house catch fire, a plane crash, or a bomb blow up a ship, you are probably watching a model house, plane and ship. But you do not realize this when you see it on the film.
The big dinosaurs in the film Jurassic Park (1993) were not real, of course! Lots of models were made of each of them.
Today, computers are used more and more in special effects, making the impossible seem possible.
The first ‘special effect’ happened in the film The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, which was made in the Edison studios in 1895. The audience appear to see Queen Mary’s head being cut off, but the director stopped the camera and changed the actress for a dummy, whose head was cut off in the next shot.
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